The author's introduction and notes will draw greater attention to one of the period's more intriguing figures and will suggest Hotze's status as the most cosmopolitan advocate of the Confederate cause in Europe. Visit Seller's Storefront. Cash or check in U. I can also accept payments through Paypal if the buyer prefers. Will hold book for seven days following receipt of telephone or e-mail order.
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List this Seller's Books. Nott to which Hotze added his own introduction of more than pages. Hotze's version, entitled Moral and Intellectual Diversity of Races , was a detailed discussion of various cultures that purported to prove through science a hierarchy of racial intelligence among various groups of people based on skin color and continent of origin.
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Proponents of slavery used his finished product as a manifesto on the justification of slavery and subjugation. Hotze specifically adapted Gobineau's racial views to justify the unequal treatment of what he believed to be unequal races. In Mobile, Hotze served in a number of municipal positions, including secretary of the Mobile Board of Harbor Commissioners and as the secretary to the Belgian mission from to He then worked as an associate editor at John Forsyth's Mobile Register.
Hotze's tenure at the Register coincided with the presidential election of when he worked with Forsyth to support the candidacy of Stephen A. After the Civil War began, Hotze entered the more public phase of his career. As a member of the Mobile Cadets, a military organization made up mostly of Mobile's affluent sons, Hotze was sent to Virginia as part of the Third Alabama Infantry Regiment.
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A journalist by profession, he wrote firsthand accounts of his brief time in the Confederate military, sending a series of letters back to the Mobile Register under the pseudonym "Cadet. Hotze was never involved in any hostile action. One year later, Hotze, by then working for the Confederate State Department in London, published, in his own newspaper, a series of articles under the title "Three Months in the Confederate Army.
Although Hotze describes the hard work involved in setting up the camp, his accounts of the first few weeks of his tour focus on descriptions of a very lively social scene. In the fall of , the Confederate government sent Hotze on a special mission to Europe to purchase arms, but when he arrived in Great Britain, he came to believe that his time could be better spent on pro-Confederate diplomacy and propaganda.
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In November he successfully lobbied for an appointment as a "commercial agent" to London. Such an agent would normally be charged with procuring arms and supplies for the Confederate armies, but Hotze was actually sent to keep the Confederate government apprised of European public opinion and to present the Southern cause in the best possible light to the local reading public. Working in an anonymous fashion, Hotze arranged for an unsigned editorial to be inserted in the London Morning Post. In March , Hotze used this newfound access to contribute a series of four letters to the Post.
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On November 14, he was created an agent with the core task of influencing British public opinion toward supporting the Confederacy. Hotze realized that propaganda effort had to be about more than cotton alone. He appealed to prejudice against the United States, British naval rights, and the rights of smaller nations.
He paid English journalists to support the cause and wrote his own pieces in the Morning Post , the London Standard , the Herald , and the financial weekly paper Money and Market Review. His first piece in the British press was published on 23 February in the influential Morning Post , the newspaper loyal to then British Prime Minister Lord Palmerston.
In May , he created a weekly journal, The Index , which was perhaps the best Confederate propaganda activity in Europe. It had a circulation of around 2, and was distributed primarily in Britain but was also read in France , Ireland , and even sent back to the Union itself. With a total of sixteen pages, The Index appeared every week on Thursdays. The newspaper cost six pence and thirty shillings for an annual subscription.
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By the month of July , though sales had been increasing very slowly since , sales revenue of The Index finally became sufficient to amortize the total running costs of the paper. According to Serge Noirsain of the Confederate Historical Association of Belgium, "Hotze called upon the assistance of professional journalists on the European continent. Manetta was a long-standing Italian friend of a member of the Confederate diplomatic mission in London, who had lived for a while in Virginia.
Using the same methods as Hotze in England, Manetta managed to successfully infiltrate the Italian media, in particular the Turin press. This complicity produced a profitable exchange of information between The Index and the best newspapers on the European market. When sources were available, Hotze developed topics that influenced or helped the Confederate envoys in their official missions.
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As a result, his columns in The Index and their echoes in other well-known newspapers helped consolidate the logic behind the policies of the South". Hotze participated in a number of other important activities to support the south. He assisted in writing Lord Campbell 's speech against the Union blockade given in the House of Lords on March 10, He also had an important dinner with William Ewart Gladstone according to Gladstone's papers, July 31, , where he stressed that the Union and Confederacy could negotiate their boundaries in a mediation effort.
As moved on and after the battle of Antietam and the Emancipation Proclamation , Hotze became more frustrated over the course of public opinion in Great Britain.
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After the death of Stonewall Jackson prompted some sympathy for the south, Hotze attempted to organize pro-Confederacy meetings in Manchester , Sheffield , Preston and elsewhere to support a House of Commons resolution, initiated by J. Roebuck , for recognition of the Confederacy. Its failure and withdrawal on July 13, , seemed like the end of hope for diplomatic solutions to Hotze. When James M.