Close Preview. Toggle navigation Additional Book Information. Description Table of Contents. Summary Environmental cost-benefit analysis was developed by economists in the belief that monetary valuation of the environmental repercussions of economic activity is essential if the "environment " stands any chance of being included in government and business decisions.
Table of Contents 1. Request an e-inspection copy. Share this Title. Recommend to Librarian. Shopping Cart Summary. Items Subtotal. View Cart. The book will be of interest to Economics students and researchers alike who seek a deeper understanding of the theory and practice of environmental participation.
Maria A. Introduction 2. Social Capital and Institutions 3.
- Implementing a us Carbon Tax.
- Participation in Environmental Organizations.
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Participation in Environmental Organization: What Matters? Littering and Environmental Participation 7. Participation in Environmental Organizations: Environmental Motivation 8.
Participation in Environmental Organizations (Routledge Explorations in Environmental Economics)
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In their study, a small but substantial part of the fishermen reacted neither to normative aspects not to traditional deterrence variables, instead persistently violating the regulation and using bribes to avoid punishment. When regulation is perceived as illegitimate or the economic incentives to violate are large, violation can be ubiquitous.
Since in many developing, corruption is rampant TI , any attempt to increase enforcement might be offset by more frequent use of bribes. Enforcing officers may also accept bribes to avoid social disapproval, adding another level of complexity Akpalu, Eggert, and Vondolia Akpalu, W.
Eggert and K. The enforcement of exogenous environmental regulation, social disapproval, and bribery. Journal of Socio-Economics 38 6 : Eggert, H. Regulatory compliance in Lake Victoria fisheries.
Front Matter : Implementing a US Carbon Tax : Challenges and Debates:
Environment and Development Economics 15 2 : Jentoft, S. Fisheries co-management: Delegating government responsibility to fishermen's organizations. Marine Policy 13 2 : Sutinen, J.
A socio-economic theory of regulatory compliance. International Journal of Social Economics TI Transparency International.
The global corruption barometer. Hodess and A. In recent decades, Chile has pursued neoliberal, market-oriented policies in the water sector. Chilean authorities have set out to privatize previously public water management services. The argument is that the role of the state should be to regulate services, not provide them. Currently, only a small percentage of urban water and sanitation services are provided by private enterprises. Rather, municipal water services are commonly provided by public corporations that operate as independent legal bodies.
Departing from the more traditional rate-of-return and price-cap regulations, prices of public water utilities in Chile are set using a particular form of yardstick regulation in which the benchmarking is based on hypothetical efficient firm Montero The recommended tariff structures include fixed charges for fixed costs such as metering , capacity charges depending on seasonal costs , consumption charges and charges for waste treatment. All of these charges vary by region and season, where applicable , depending on the actual levels and costs of water supply, infrastructure, treatment, transport, sewage, and so forth.
When the new tariff structures were applied beginning in , the rate increase was particularly dramatic for the low-volume consumers, who previously had the most heavily subsidized rates e. To soften the blow, the reform was implemented slowly over four years. In addition, a system of subsidies still exists for consumers who are unable to afford their water bills. To receive this subsidy, consumers must submit a written application to the local municipality explaining their inability to pay. Successful applicants must meet several conditions. This subsidy arrangement effectively targets poor individuals while preserving transparency in the public use of money.
However, the system does not incur administrative costs for the public agencies and time costs for poor consumers, and it may be somewhat humiliating for those who are forced to apply for the subsidy.
ISBN 13: 9780415446310
Montero, J. A model of final offer arbitration in regulation. Journal of Regulatory Economics 28 1 : One of the most emblematic of all nature conservancy is the creation of national parks. They have, however, often been controversial for a number of reasons. Parks take land away from agriculture, forestry and other activities, and on more than a few occasions local inhabitants have been quite forcefully displaced by park creation.
Furthermore, national parks require quite sizable budgets to maintain and monitor. The case is made that national parks are very important for biodiversity, ecosystem services, option and existence values, and the more concrete: They attract tourists. But what have the parks actually got to provide all this?
Critics who want to see revenue note that revenue from parks has often been low. The main reason for this is often that fees are low — partly for reasons of social justice, because if they were higher, local residents with low income would be excluded.
In recent years, however, both a considerable amount of research and a change in practical policies has taken place. Many developing states, however, are seeing an increasing trend of phasing our tax-based grants to national parks, placing even more pressure on the to set prices that will cover their costs. The pricing of national parks is also very important for at least two other reasons: first, it can be used to manage congestion, and second, it can be used to smooth seasonality in park visitation.
Finally price discrimination policies should take into account the different income levels of national and international visitors - and maybe also other categories, such as students or pensioners. The pricing of protected areas in nature-based tourism: a local perspective. Ecological Economics Carlsson, and O. Does context matter more for hypothetical than for actual contributions? Evidence from a natural field experiment.
Experimental Economics 11 3 : Anonymity, reciprocity and conformity: evidence from voluntary contributions from a national park in Costa Rica. Journal of Public Economics For more information, visit www. Toggle navigation. There is an apparent — and impeccable — logic that says we should always use the first best instrument. The first best in this case are taxes that will incentivize the abatement with the lowest cost, and we should be sceptical of other policies such as technology support that seem to have a much higher marginal cost of abatement.
However, the strategic perspective above can sometimes reverse this conclusion Myers If lobbying, human behaviour and other factors always impede the rational use of first best instruments, then we are stuck in a permanent trap. We need to think of what other instruments can do and in that perspective, temporary technology policy is worth careful consideration — and is currently proving very promising. References Arrow, K. Journal of Public Economics 29 1 : Bovenberg, A.
Ambio Green, J. Myers, N. Lifting the veil on perverse subsidies. Nature Pezzey, J C V. Environmental and Resource economics Stavins Case Study: Enforcement and Economics of Fisheries Thomas Sterner Successful monitoring and enforcement are essential for any fishery management regime.
References Akpalu, W. Journal of Socio-Economics 38 6 : Eggert, H. Environment and Development Economics 15 2 : Jentoft, S.
Implementing a US Carbon Tax : Challenges and Debates
Marine Policy 13 2 : Sutinen, J. References Montero, J. Journal of Public Economics For more information, visit www. Group Activities Click to download. The purpose of the course is to highlight the need of implementing effective environmental policies and thus the course evaluates and discusses already existing instruments and their impact and political feasibility in different settings.