Guide Pope John Paul II (Heroes - Popes in Hard Times)

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In , Pope Pius XII defined the Assumption of Mary as dogma, the only time that a pope has spoken ex cathedra since papal infallibility was explicitly declared. The Petrine Doctrine is still controversial as an issue of doctrine that continues to divide the eastern and western churches and separate Protestants from Rome. The Catholic Church teaches that, within the Christian community, the bishops as a body have succeeded to the body of the apostles apostolic succession and the Bishop of Rome has succeeded to Saint Peter.

Scriptural texts proposed in support of Peter's special position in relation to the church include:. I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of here shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven.

Simon, Simon, behold, Satan demanded to have you, that he might sift you like wheat, but I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail. And when you have turned again, strengthen your brothers. Feed my sheep. The symbolic keys in the Papal coats of arms are a reference to the phrase " the keys of the kingdom of heaven " in the first of these texts. Some Protestant writers have maintained that the "rock" that Jesus speaks of in this text is Jesus himself or the faith expressed by Peter.

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The pope was originally chosen by those senior clergymen resident in and near Rome. In the electorate was restricted to the Cardinals of the Holy Roman Church, and the individual votes of all Cardinal Electors were made equal in The electors are now limited to those who have not reached 80 on the day before the death or resignation of a pope.

The last to be elected when not yet a bishop was Pope Gregory XVI in , and the last to be elected when not even a priest was Pope Leo X in , and the last to be elected when not a cardinal was Pope Urban VI in The Second Council of Lyon was convened on 7 May , to regulate the election of the pope. This Council decreed that the cardinal electors must meet within ten days of the pope's death, and that they must remain in seclusion until a pope has been elected; this was prompted by the three-year sede vacante following the death of Pope Clement IV in By the midth century, the electoral process had evolved into its present form, allowing for variation in the time between the death of the pope and the meeting of the cardinal electors.

Traditionally, the vote was conducted by Acclamation , by selection by committee , or by plenary vote. Acclamation was the simplest procedure, consisting entirely of a voice vote. The election of the pope almost always takes place in the Sistine Chapel , in a sequestered meeting called a " conclave " so called because the cardinal electors are theoretically locked in, cum clave , i. Three cardinals are chosen by lot to collect the votes of absent cardinal electors by reason of illness , three are chosen by lot to count the votes, and three are chosen by lot to review the count of the votes.

The ballots are distributed and each cardinal elector writes the name of his choice on it and pledges aloud that he is voting for "one whom under God I think ought to be elected" before folding and depositing his vote on a plate atop a large chalice placed on the altar. For the Papal conclave, , a special urn was used for this purpose instead of a chalice and plate.

The plate is then used to drop the ballot into the chalice, making it difficult for electors to insert multiple ballots. Before being read, the ballots are counted while still folded; if the number of ballots does not match the number of electors, the ballots are burned unopened and a new vote is held. Otherwise, each ballot is read aloud by the presiding Cardinal, who pierces the ballot with a needle and thread, stringing all the ballots together and tying the ends of the thread to ensure accuracy and honesty.

Balloting continues until someone is elected by a two-thirds majority. One of the most prominent aspects of the papal election process is the means by which the results of a ballot are announced to the world. Once the ballots are counted and bound together, they are burned in a special stove erected in the Sistine Chapel, with the smoke escaping through a small chimney visible from Saint Peter's Square.

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The ballots from an unsuccessful vote are burned along with a chemical compound to create black smoke, or fumata nera. Traditionally, wet straw was used to produce the black smoke, but this was not completely reliable. The chemical compound is more reliable than the straw. When a vote is successful, the ballots are burned alone, sending white smoke fumata bianca through the chimney and announcing to the world the election of a new pope. The Dean of the College of Cardinals then asks two solemn questions of the man who has been elected. First he asks, "Do you freely accept your election as Supreme Pontiff?

If he replies not , his reign begins at the inauguration ceremony several days afterward. The Dean asks next, "By what name shall you be called?


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If the Dean himself is elected pope, the Vice Dean performs this task. The new pope is led through the "Door of Tears" to a dressing room where three sets of white papal vestments immantatio await: small, medium, and large.

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Donning the appropriate vestments and reemerging into the Sistine Chapel, the new pope is given the " Fisherman's Ring " by the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church , whom he first either reconfirms or reappoints. The pope assumes a place of honor as the rest of the cardinals wait in turn to offer their first "obedience" adoratio and to receive his blessing. The Senior Cardinal Deacon announces from a balcony over St. Peter's Square the following proclamation: Annuntio vobis gaudium magnum!

Habemus Papam! We have a pope! He announces the new pope's Christian name along with his newly chosen regnal name.

Until the pope's election was followed in a few days by the Papal coronation , which started with a procession with great pomp and circumstance from the Sistine Chapel to St. Peter's Basilica , with the newly elected pope borne in the sedia gestatoria. After a solemn Papal Mass , the new pope was crowned with the triregnum papal tiara and he gave for the first time as pope the famous blessing Urbi et Orbi "to the City [Rome] and to the World".

Another renowned part of the coronation was the lighting of a bundle of flax at the top of a gilded pole, which would flare brightly for a moment and then promptly extinguish, as he said, Sic transit gloria mundi "Thus passes worldly glory". A similar warning against papal hubris made on this occasion was the traditional exclamation, "Annos Petri non-videbis" , reminding the newly crowned pope that he would not live to see his rule lasting as long as that of St.

According to tradition, he headed the church for 35 years and has thus far been the longest-reigning pope in the history of the Catholic Church. A traditionalist Catholic belief that lacks reliable authority claims that a Papal Oath was sworn, at their coronation, by all popes from Pope Agatho to Pope Paul VI and that it was omitted with the abolition of the coronation ceremony. The Latin term, sede vacante "while the see is vacant" , [93] refers to a papal interregnum , the period between the death or resignation of a pope and the election of his successor.

From this term is derived the term sedevacantism , which designates a category of dissident Catholics who maintain that there is no canonically and legitimately elected pope, and that there is therefore a sede vacante. One of the most common reasons for holding this belief is the idea that the reforms of the Second Vatican Council , and especially the reform of the Tridentine Mass with the Mass of Paul VI , are heretical and that those responsible for initiating and maintaining these changes are heretics and not true popes.

For centuries, from on, those elected to the papacy were predominantly Italians. The current regulations regarding a papal interregnum —that is, a sede vacante "vacant seat" —were promulgated by Pope John Paul II in his document Universi Dominici Gregis. During the "sede vacante" period, the College of Cardinals is collectively responsible for the government of the Church and of the Vatican itself, under the direction of the Camerlengo of the Holy Roman Church ; however, canon law specifically forbids the cardinals from introducing any innovation in the government of the Church during the vacancy of the Holy See.

Any decision that requires the assent of the pope has to wait until the new pope has been elected and accepts office. In recent centuries, when a pope was judged to have died, it was reportedly traditional for the Cardinal Camerlengo to confirm the death ceremonially by gently tapping the pope's head thrice with a silver hammer, calling his birth name each time.

The pope's seals are defaced, to keep them from ever being used again, and his personal apartment is sealed. The body lies in state for several days before being interred in the crypt of a leading church or cathedral; all popes who have died in the 20th and 21st centuries have been interred in St. Peter's Basilica. A nine-day period of mourning novendialis follows the interment. It is highly unusual for a pope to resign. Popes adopt a new name on their accession, known as papal name , in Italian and Latin.

Currently, after a new pope is elected and accepts the election, he is asked "By what name shall you be called?

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The new pope chooses the name by which he will be known from that point on. The senior Cardinal Deacon, or Cardinal Protodeacon, then appears on the balcony of Saint Peter's to proclaim the new pope by his birth name, and announce his papal name in Latin. It's customary when referring to popes to translate the regnal name into all local languages. The official list of titles of the pope, in the order in which they are given in the Annuario Pontificio , is:.

The best-known title, that of "Pope", does not appear in the official list, but is commonly used in the titles of documents, and appears, in abbreviated form, in their signatures. VI", the "PP. The title "Pope" was from the early 3rd century an honorific designation used for any bishop in the West. From the 6th century, the imperial chancery of Constantinople normally reserved this designation for the Bishop of Rome. In Eastern Christianity , where the title "Pope" is used also of the Bishop of Alexandria, the Bishop of Rome is often referred to as the "Pope of Rome", regardless of whether the speaker or writer is in communion with Rome or not.

It is commonly used in the slightly abbreviated form "Vicar of Christ" Vicarius Christi.

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While it is only one of the terms with which the pope is referred to as "Vicar", it is "more expressive of his supreme headship of the Church on Earth, which he bears in virtue of the commission of Christ and with vicarial power derived from him", a vicarial power believed to have been conferred on Saint Peter when Christ said to him: "Feed my lambs Feed my sheep" John — The first record of the application of this title to a Bishop of Rome appears in a synod of with reference to Pope Gelasius I.

This title "Vicar of Christ" is thus not used of the pope alone and has been used of all bishops since the early centuries. The difference is that the other bishops are vicars of Christ for their own local churches, the pope is vicar of Christ for the whole Church.


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